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How time actually works in the universe

 How does time work. How time actually works in the universe.

Time image
Time is all around us, a constant that keeps the world and the universe tickling.

From the beginning of the universe to the present day, it is one of the few things that we consider to be regular and unchanging. We look at the physics of time.

When considering time, it is easy to get lost in the complexity of the subject quickly. Time is all around us - it is always present and is the basis of how we record life on Earth. 

It is the constant that tickles the world, the solar system, and even the universe.

Civilizations arose and fell, stars were born and extinguished, and one of our ways of tracking every event on the universe and on Earth is to compare the present day with regular times.

But is it really stable? Is time really as simple as speed from one second to another?

The universe was born 13.4 billion years ago, and since then has been overseeing the creation of galaxies and the expansion of space. But when it comes to comparing time, it is hard to realize how little time we have actually experienced.

The Earth may be 4.5 billion years old, but modern humans have inhabited it for nearly 300,000 years - it is only 0.002% of the age of the universe. 

Feeling small and unimportant yet? It gets worse. We have experienced so little time on Earth that we are completely negligible in astronomical terms.

In the 17th century physicist Isaac Newton saw time as an arrow drawn by a bow, traveling in a straight, straight line and never deviating from its path. 

For Newton, one second on Earth was equal to one second in Mars, Jupiter, or deep space. He believed that full motion or absolute motion cannot be detected, which means that nothing in the universe has a constant speed, even light. 

By applying this principle, he was able to assume that if the speed of light could vary, then time must be constant. 

The time should last from one second to the next, there should be no difference between the length of any two seconds. This is something that is easy to think is true. 

There are about 24 hours in each day; You don't have one day with 26 hours and one with 23 hours.

Book of natural wonders

However, in the year 1905, Albert Einstein insisted that the speed of light does not vary, rather it is constant, traveling at about 186,282 miles per second (299,792 kilometers per second). 

He assumed that time was more like a river, fluctuating and flowing based on the effects of gravity and space-time. 

The time around the cosmological bodies with different mass and velocity will be faster and slower, and therefore the one second on Earth did not have the same length everywhere in the universe.

This caused a problem. If the speed of light were indeed constant, there must be some variable that changed over a large distance across the entire universe. 

With the expansion of the universe and the planets and galaxies advancing on the vast scale of the galaxy, something had to give to allow for these small fluctuations. And it should have been variable time.

It was ultimately Einstein's theory that was not only considered to be true, but also proved to be completely accurate. 

In October 1971, Two physicists named J.C. Hafele and Richard Keating set about proving its validity. 

To do this, he flew four caesium atomic watches on planes around the world, east and then west.

According to Einstein's theory, when compared with ground-based atomic clocks - in this instance at the US Naval Observatory in Washington, DC - Hafel and Keating's airwaves would be about 40 nanoseconds slower than their prior trip, and The journey will be about 275 nanoseconds faster. 

According to his 1972 study in the journal Science, due to the gravitational effect of the Earth on the velocity of planes to the west. 

Incredibly, the watches actually recorded a difference when traveling east and west around the world - about 59 nanoseconds slower and 273 nanoseconds respectively, compared to the US Naval Observatory. 

This proved that Einstein was right, especially with his theory of time dilation, and in that time actually fluctuated throughout the universe.

What happens during the dilation of time?

What does the theory of special relativity mean in terms of time? We would suggest
that you read our explanation of special relativity first to get a true understanding of the spread or dilation of time.


Newton and Einstein agreed on one thing, though - that time moves forward. So far, no evidence has been found of anything in the universe that can dodge time and move back and forth at will. 

Everything eventually moves over time, whether at a regular speed or slightly distorted when approaching the speed of light. Can we answer why time lags ahead? Not quite, although there are many theories as to why this happens. 

One of these brings the laws of thermodynamics, especially the second law. It states that everything in the Universe wants to move from low to high entropy, or uniformity into disorder, beginning with simplicity in the Big Bang and moving towards an almost random arrangement of galaxies and their inhabitants at the present time. 

This is known as the "arrow of time", or sometimes "time's arrow", possibly coined by British astronomer Arthur Eddington in the year 1928, the analytical philosopher Hugh Price said in 2006 in the seminar Poincaré.

Eddington suggested that time was not symmetric: "If we follow the arrow we find more and more random elements in the state of the world, then the arrow is pointing to the future; if the random element decreases, the arrow Points to the past, "he wrote in 1928 in" The Nature of the Physical World ". 

For example, if you look at a star in almost uniformity, but later see that it explodes as a supernova and becomes a scattered nebula, then you will find that time equates to anarchy.

Another theory states that the reason for the passage of time is the expansion of the universe. 

As the universe expands, it draws time with it, because space and time are interconnected as one, but this would mean that if the universe reaches the theoretical limit of expansion and starts to contract, So time will reverse - a little contradiction for scientists and astronomers. 

Will time really go backwards, everything will return to the era of ingenuity and end with the "Big Crunch"? It is unlikely that we will be around to detect this, but we can think about what might happen.

It is incredible to think of the progress we have made in our understanding of time in the last century. 

From sundials to modern time clocks to modern atomic clocks, we can also track the passing of a second more closely than ever before. 

Time remains a complex subject, but thanks to scientific visionaries, we are getting closer to unraveling the mysteries of this constant universal constant.

Arrow of time
A concept depiction of the "arrow of time".

The importance of Einstein's special relativity theory.

Einstein's special relativity theory relies on an important fact: the speed of light is the same no matter how you look at it. 

To put this into practice, imagine that you are traveling in a car at a speed of 20 mph (32 km / h), and you leave behind a friend who is standing motionless. 

As soon as you pass them, you throw a ball in front of the car at 10 mph (16 km / h).

Your friend gets the speed of the ball at the speed of the car, and so it appears to be traveling at 30 mph (48 km / h). 

Relative to you, however, the ball only travels at 10 mph, because you are already traveling at 20 mph.

Now imagine the same scenario, but this time you travel at half the speed of light and pass it to your stable friend. 

Through some imaginary contraption, your friend can see you as you travel past. This time you shine a ray of light through the windscreen of the car.

In our previous calculations, we combined the speed of the ball and the car together to find out what your friend saw, so in this example, would your friend see the beam of light traveling at one and a half times the speed of light is ?

According to Einstein, the answer is no. The speed of light is always constant, and no one can travel faster than this. 

On this occasion, both you and your friend see the speed of light traveling at a speed of about 14,282 miles per second at its universally agreed value. 

This is the principle of special relativity, and it is very important when talking about time.

The 4th dimension of universe (Time).

It was once thought that space and time were different, and that the universe was simply an assortment of cosmic bodies arranged in three dimensions. 

However, Einstein introduced the concept of the fourth dimension - time, which meant that space and time had an unbroken relationship. 

The general theory of relativity states that space-time expands and shrinks depending on the speed and mass of the surrounding material. The theory was correct, but only proof was needed.

That evidence came courtesy of NASA's Gravity Probe B, which demonstrated that space and time were indeed interlinked. 

The four gyroscopes were pointed in the direction of a distant star, and if gravity had no effect on location and time, they would remain closed in the same position. 

However, scientists clearly noticed a "frame-dragging" effect due to the Earth's gravity, which meant that the gyroscope was pulled far short of the position. 

It seems that only the fabric of space can be changed, and if space and time are connected, time itself can be extended and compressed by gravity.

Probe B spacecraft
Artist concept of gravitational probe B spacecraft in orbit.

How long is a second?

There are two main methods of measuring time: dynamic and atomic time. The former depends on the speed of the celestial bodies, including the Earth, to keep track of time, whether it is the rotation time of distant rotating stars like the Pulsar, the motion of a star in our night sky or the rotation of the Earth. 

However, despite a spinning star, which can be difficult to observe, these methods are not always completely accurate.

The old definition of seconds was based on the rotation of the Earth. Since it takes one day for the sun to rise in the east, set in the west and rise again, a day was divided almost arbitrarily into 24 hours, an hour into 60 minutes, and a minute into 60 seconds. . 

However, the Earth does not rotate evenly. Due to factors such as tidal friction, its rotation reduces at a rate of about 30 seconds every 10,000 years. 

Scientists have devised ways to initiate leap seconds, keeping in mind the changing speed of the Earth's rotation, "but for the most accurate time you have to go even shorter.

Atomic time depends on the energy transition within the atom of a certain element, usually cesium. 

By defining a second using the number of these transitions, time can be measured with the accuracy of losing a small fraction of a second over a million years. The definition of one second is now defined as 9,192,631,770 transitions within a cesium atom, Scientific American reported.


The most accurate track of time (atomic clock).

The most accurate clock in the universe will probably be a pulsar-like rotating star, but the atomic clocks on Earth provide the most accurate track of time

The entire GPS system in orbit around the Earth uses atomic clocks to accurately track the position and relay data to the planet, while entire scientific centers are set up to calculate the most accurate measurement of time - Usually by measuring transitions within a cesium atom.

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