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NASA's Perseverance Rover successfully launched on 30th July 2020. Full overview and full procedure of perseverance work

The NASA's perseverance rover has been launched successfully on 30th July 2020. Now the Rover has been confirmed to be healthy on a journey to Mars mission. The Rover will take approximately 6.5 to 7 month to land on a Red planet ( Mars planet ). It will land on February 2021.



''The mission has 314 million miles of space and seven minutes to safely spread terror over the surface of Red planet ( Mars ),'' LORI GLAZE, director of NASA's department of planetary sciences, said in a statement. '' The fun really begins when we first see the landscape in the Jzero Crater and we really start to realize the scientific reward in front of us.''

CRUISING THROUGH SPACE

The Perseverance Rover and Ingenuity helicopter is safely tucked inside a protective aeroshell capsule. The descent stage that helps land the rover is also located in this aeroshell, which is connected to the cruise stage, or mission spacecraft

The cruise stage is shaped like a disk and solar powered. It would cover more than 300 million miles to reach on the Mars Planet.

While it is hovering on Mars Planet, the engineers on the Earth planet will tell the spacecraft when to carry out he improvisation maneuver to keep it on the right track on Mars planet, as well as its landing target. The ground team will also check on the equipments present in the spacecraft.

Approximately 45 days before landing on Mars Planet, the spacecraft will enters the approach phase, with more improved maneuvers in the trajectory.

While hoping for a quiet journey to Mars, the perseverance teams will prepare and train for the rover's landing on mars. The science team will prepare instruction for sending the rover as it uses its equipment on Red planet ( mars ).



The driver of the rover will also work with a model of the rover on the Earth to prepare for the journey of the perseverance rover to the surface of the Mars.

It involves using the perseverance on Earth to t est hardware, drive it through the Mars yard at NASA's jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, and make sure Auto-navigation algorithms work, said by the Heather Justice, robotic operation downlink lead and one of the rover drivers on the JPL.

SEVEN MINUTES OF TERROR

 The one way light time fr the radio signals to travel from the Earth to Mars is approximately 10.5 minutes, meaning that it takes seven minutes for a spacecraft to land on the Mars planet, helping or interfering with the team of the NASA on the Earth would be without doing.

The Members of the NASA team refer to it as the '' seven minutes of Terror ''. They tell the spacecraft when to start the EDL which means ( entry, descent, and landing ), and the spacecraft participates from there.

The perseverance rover of NASA


The spacecraft collides with the atmosphere of Mars, moving at a speed of 12,000 miles per hours and has to go down to zero miles per hours seven minutes later, as the rover slowly descends to the surface.

approximately 10 minutes before entering the thin atmosphere of Mars planet, the cruise stage is shed and the spacecraft is ready for a guided entry, where small thrusters on t he aeroshell help adjust its angle. 

The heat shield of the space gradient will withstand an extreme temperature of 2,370°F, 75 seconds after entering the atmosphere.

NASA's perseverance is Aiming a 28 mile wide ancient lake bed and delta river, the most challenging site yet for a NASA spacecraft landing on Red planet ( MARS ). Rather than being flat and smooth, the small landing site is littered with sand dunes, steep cliffs, boulders and small craters.

The spacecraft has two upgraded that is called to be Range Trigger and Terrain relative navigation to navigate this difficult and hazardous site.

RANGE TRIGGER
The range trigger, based on the position of the spacecraft, will convey a 70.5 foot wide parachute when deployed 240 seconds after entering the atmosphere. After the parachute deployment, the heat shield will separate.

TERRAIN RELATIVE
The terrain relative navigation acts like a second brain for the Rover, which uses cameras to captured the pictures of the ground of Mars as it approaches rapidly and determines the safest location on the ground. According to the NASA, it can move landing spot up to 2,000 feet.

The back shell and parachute are separated after the heat shield when the spacecraft is 1.3 miles above the surface of the Mars planet. The Mars landing engine, which includes eight retro-cards, will fire to slow the descent from 190 mph to about 1.7 mph.

Then, the Curiosity Rover landed which would be the famous sky crane maneuver. The nylon cords will be placed on the descent stage 25 feet below the rover. After the rover's martyr touches the surface, the wires will break and the descent phase  will fly away and descend to a safe distance.

After the landing of the rover, the mission of perseverance for two year will begin and go through a '' checkout '' period to ensure that it is ready.

The rover will deploy its mast and antenna, image its landing, conduct a ''health check '', test movement and ''flex '' for its equipment and conduct a short test drive. The perseverance will also release his belly pan, which provided a safe haven for the ingenuity helicopter deposited there during cruises and landing

The rover will also get a nice, flat surface to drop the ingenuity helicopter, so that there is room to use as a helipad for a possible five test flights over 30 days periods. This will occur within the first 50 to 90 years of the mission, or within the martian days.

LANDING ON THE SURFACE OF THE MARS
Ingenutiy helicopter
Once the Ingenuity helicopter settles on the surface of the Mars, the perseverance rover will move to safe location a short distance away and use its camera to watch the Ingenuity helicopter's flight.

After those flight, the perseverance rover will begin to search for evidences and proofs of ancient life, study the climate and geology of Mars and collect the samples that will eventually return to Earth through planned future missions.




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